weapons -

Weapon used most and learned first is the Longsword, a type of European sword used during the late medieval period, approximately 1350 to 1550. Longswords have long cruciform hilts with grips over 260mm length. Straight double-edged blades are often over 0.8m to 1.2m length, and weigh typically between 1.2-2.4kg. The hilt construction featured a full-length tang, to which a pommel was attached by a process called peening.

The Messer or Langes Messer was an all-purpose knife and weapon used by commoners and nobility alike. Typically single-edged and with a wide and slightly curved blade ranging in length from 400 to 900mm, the hilt construction is side-riveted. If the hilt is constructed similar to swords, the weapon is called falchion or malchus. A distinctive feature of this weapon is the nagel, a lateral projection of the crossguard, which protected the knuckles.

Daggers and knives were commonly carried and thus the fechtb├╝cher or fight manuals present many techniques for both their offensive and defensive use. These weapons can greatly vary in length and construction and were primarily used for stabbing rather than cutting. I also train with and teach other period weapons such as spear, halberd, sickle etc., as well as unarmed fighting or ringen

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- sources

Historical European martial arts [HEMA] refers to martial arts of European origin, particularly using arts formerly practised, but having since died out or evolved into very different forms. While there is limited surviving documentation of the martial arts of Classical Antiquity, surviving dedicated technical treatises or combat manuals date to the Late Middle Ages and the Early Modern period. For this reason, the focus of HEMA is de facto on the period of the half-millennium of ca. 1300 to 1800, with a German and an Italian school flowering in the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, followed by Spanish, French, English and Scottish schools of fencing in the 17th and 18th centuries.

I study the style of Liechtenauer, though no manuscript written by him is known to have survived, his teachings were first recorded in the late 14th century MS 3227a. From the 15th century into the 17th, numerous Fechtb├╝cher were produced, of which some 55 are extant; a great many of these describe methods descended from Liechtenauer's. Of these, my primary (but not sole) sources include:

____HS 3227a1389

____Mscr. Dresd. C 4871440

____44 A 8 (Cod. 1449)1452

____CGM 5821482

____Cod. icon. 3931542
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